Sunday, December 18, 2011

The Arabs in Al-Quran ٱلْأَعْرَابُ


The Arabs in Al-Quran: by Asad AbdurRahman


يعرب‎ Ya'rub: Ya‘rub ibn Yashjub ibn Qahtan- Father of the Arabs

إعراب I'raab: 1. Grammer (modern standard Arabic). 2. Inf. n. clear, plain, distinct; as in "Pure Arabian blood, free from any admixture of other than Arabian blood" -Reference Arabic-English Lexicon page 1992 by Edward William Lane 1863الْأَعْرَابُ Al-A'raab (plural): The Arabs. The prefix الْ means "The".

Note: Conjugation with an Arabic vowel does not change the root of an Arabic word. The alif أ between ra ر and ba ب in Al-A'raab does not change the Arabs into Bedouins. Al-A'raab and Bedoiun are two distinct Arabic words with two distinct Arabic roots.

Allah says:

وَجَآءَ ٱلْمُعَذِّرُونَ مِنَ ٱلْأَعْرَابِ لِيُؤْذَنَ لَهُمْ وَقَعَدَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَذَبُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ ۚ سَيُصِيبُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ مِنْهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌۭ

And came the excuse makers from the Arabs (الْأَعْرَابِ) that permission be granted to them, and sat those who lied to Allah and His Messenger. Will strike those who disbelieved from them, a painful punishment- Holy Quran 9:90

Allah says:

ٱلْأَعْرَابُ أَشَدُّ كُفْرًۭا وَنِفَاقًۭا وَأَجْدَرُ أَلَّا يَعْلَمُوا۟ حُدُودَ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِۦ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌۭ

The Arabs (الْأَعْرَابُ) are stronger in infidelity and hypocricy, and more likely they know not the limits of what Allah sent down to His Messenger. And Allah is Knowing, Wise- Holy Quran 9:97

وَمِنَ ٱلْأَعْرَابِ مَن يَتَّخِذُ مَا يُنفِقُ مَغْرَمًۭا وَيَتَرَبَّصُ بِكُمُ ٱلدَّوَآئِرَ ۚ عَلَيْهِمْ دَآئِرَةُ ٱلسَّوْءِ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌۭ

And from the Arabs (الْأَعْرَابِ) (is he) who takes what he spends (as) a loss, and he awaits for you the turns. Upon them the evil turn. And Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing- Holy Quran 9:98

وَمِنَ ٱلْأَعْرَابِ مَن يُؤْمِنُ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلْيَوْمِ ٱلْءَاخِرِ وَيَتَّخِذُ مَا يُنفِقُ قُرُبَٰتٍ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ وَصَلَوَٰتِ ٱلرَّسُولِ ۚ أَلَآ إِنَّهَا قُرْبَةٌۭ لَّهُمْ ۚ سَيُدْخِلُهُمُ ٱللَّهُ فِى رَحْمَتِهِۦٓ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٌۭ رَّحِيمٌۭ

And from the Arabs (الْأَعْرَابِ) (is he) who has faith in Allah and the Last Day, and takes what he spends as means of nearness to Allah and prayers (وَصَلَوَاتِ) of the Messenger. Behold! Verily it is a means of nearness for them. Allah will admit them in His Mercy. Verily Allah is Forgiving, Merciful- Holy Quran 9:99

Allah says:

وَمِمَّنْ حَوْلَكُم مِّنَ ٱلْأَعْرَابِ مُنَٰفِقُونَ ۖ وَمِنْ أَهْلِ ٱلْمَدِينَةِ ۖ مَرَدُوا۟ عَلَى ٱلنِّفَاقِ لَا تَعْلَمُهُمْ ۖ نَحْنُ نَعْلَمُهُمْ ۚ سَنُعَذِّبُهُم مَّرَّتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ عَذَابٍ عَظِيمٍۢ

And among those around you from the Arabs (ٱلْأَعْرَابِ)(are) hypocrits. And from people of Medina. They persist upon The Hypocricy. You know them not. We know them. We will punish them twice. Then they will be returned to a Great Punishment. -Holy Quran 9:101
Allah says:

مَا كَانَ لِأَهْلِ ٱلْمَدِينَةِ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهُم مِّنَ ٱلْأَعْرَابِ أَن يَتَخَلَّفُوا۟ عَن رَّسُولِ ٱللَّهِ وَلَا يَرْغَبُوا۟ بِأَنفُسِهِمْ عَن نَّفْسِهِۦ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ لَا يُصِيبُهُمْ ظَمَأٌۭ وَلَا نَصَبٌۭ وَلَا مَخْمَصَةٌۭ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَلَا يَطَـُٔونَ مَوْطِئًۭا يَغِيظُ ٱلْكُفَّارَ وَلَا يَنَالُونَ مِنْ عَدُوٍّۢ نَّيْلًا إِلَّا كُتِبَ لَهُم بِهِۦ عَمَلٌۭ صَٰلِحٌ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُضِيعُ أَجْرَ ٱلْمُحْسِنِينَ

It is not for the people of Medina and who (are) around them from the Arabs (ٱلْأَعْرَابِ)
that they remain with the Messenger of Allah and not prefer their selves to his self;..."- Holy Quran 9:120

Allah says:

يَحْسَبُونَ ٱلْأَحْزَابَ لَمْ يَذْهَبُوا۟ ۖ وَإِن يَأْتِ ٱلْأَحْزَابُ يَوَدُّوا۟ لَوْ أَنَّهُم بَادُونَ فِى ٱلْأَعْرَابِ يَسْـَٔلُونَ عَنْ أَنۢبَآئِكُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ كَانُوا۟ فِيكُم مَّا قَٰتَلُوٓا۟ إِلَّا قَلِيلًۭا

They think the Party are not withdrawn. And if come the Party, they'd wish if that they (were in) the desert with the Arabs (ٱلْأَعْرَابِ) asking for your information. And if they were with you, they would not fight except a little.- Holy Quran 33:20

Allah says:

سَيَقُولُ لَكَ ٱلْمُخَلَّفُونَ مِنَ ٱلْأَعْرَابِ شَغَلَتْنَآ أَمْوَٰلُنَا وَأَهْلُونَا فَٱسْتَغْفِرْ لَنَا ۚ يَقُولُونَ بِأَلْسِنَتِهِم مَّا لَيْسَ فِى قُلُوبِهِمْ ۚ قُلْ فَمَن يَمْلِكُ لَكُم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيْـًٔا إِنْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ ضَرًّا أَوْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ نَفْعًۢا ۚ بَلْ كَانَ ٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًۢا

Those who remained behind from the Arabs (الْأَعْرَابِ) will say to you: "Our properties kept us busy, and our people, so ask forgiveness for us." They say with their tongues what is not in their hearts. Say: "Then who has power for you from Allah in anything if He intends in you harm, or He intends in you benefit? No! Allah is (كَانَ), of what you do, Aware."- Holy Quran 48:11

Allah says:

قُل لِّلْمُخَلَّفِينَ مِنَ ٱلْأَعْرَابِ سَتُدْعَوْنَ إِلَىٰ قَوْمٍ أُو۟لِى بَأْسٍۢ شَدِيدٍۢ تُقَٰتِلُونَهُمْ أَوْ يُسْلِمُونَ ۖ فَإِن تُطِيعُوا۟ يُؤْتِكُمُ ٱللَّهُ أَجْرًا حَسَنًۭا ۖ وَإِن تَتَوَلَّوْا۟ كَمَا تَوَلَّيْتُم مِّن قَبْلُ يُعَذِّبْكُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًۭا

Say to the people who remain from the Arabs (الْأَعْرَابِ): "You will be called to a punishing people, severe; You fight them, or they submit. Then if you obey, Allah will give you a good reward. And if you turn as you turned from before, He will punish you a punishment painful.- Holy Quran 48:16

Allah says:

قَالَتِ ٱلْأَعْرَابُ ءَامَنَّا ۖ قُل لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُوا۟ وَلَٰكِن قُولُوٓا۟ أَسْلَمْنَا وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ ٱلْإِيمَٰنُ فِى قُلُوبِكُمْ ۖ وَإِن تُطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ لَا يَلِتْكُم مِّنْ أَعْمَٰلِكُمْ شَيْـًٔا ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٌۭ رَّحِيمٌ

The Arabs (ٱلْأَعْرَابُ) say "We Believe". Say: "You believe not, [and] but say 'We submitted', and not enters the faith in your hearts. And if you obey Allah and His Messenger, He will lessen not your deeds anything. Verily Allah is Forgiving, Merciful"- Holy Quran- 49:14

Monday, June 27, 2011

Hazrat Fizza (SA): The Lofty Status of the Black Queen in Islam

Lofty status of the Black Queen in Islam by Bro. Asad AbdurRahman

In the time of the Messenger of Allah (S), there was a young princess (see etymology for Habesha below).

Habasha is the name of seventh century Kush which extended from Yemen (Shams) to North East Africa. Habesha people are known today as Abyssinian, Ethiopian, and Eritrean.

The young Princess from Habesha was kidnapped at the age of 11, and was intended for sale on the slave market. Prophet Muhammad (S) adopted her instead. It was common practice in the early days of Islam for a Believer to purchase a captive in bondage and set them free. According to Allah in His Holy Book, the freeing of a slave is a prerequisite to obtaining faith. In Surah Al-Balad Allah says:

"And what will explain to thee, the path that is steep? Freeing the bondman; Or the giving of food in a day of privation. To the orphan with claims of relationship, or to the indigent (down) in the dust. Then will he be of those who believe, and enjoin patience, and enjoin deeds of kindness and compassion." - Holy Quran 90:12-17

Prophet Muhammad (S), once an orphan himself, adopted, educated, and raised children to positions of authority. The Secretary of Defense, Zayd Ben Harith, was adopted and raised by Prophet Muhammad (S) Ref. Holy Quran 33:37.

The Blessing of being raised in the House of Prophet Muhammad (S)

To be raised in the House of the Messenger of Allah (S) was to be raised in a house that was blessed and purified by Almighty Allah ref Holy Quran 33:33

To be raised in the House of the Messenger of Allah (S) was to be raised in the house visited by the Arch Angel Jibril (AS) ref Hadith Kisa

To be raised in the House of the Messenger of Allah (S) was to be raised in the presence of the Holy Spirit- who taught the Messenger (S) the inner meanings of the Holy Quran. ref Kafi Book of Knowledge

To be raised in the House of the Messenger of Allah (S) was to become a Becon of Light ref Holy Quran 2:257. And this is what became of the young princess from Habesha. She was an Islamic scholar who knew the inner meanings of the Holy Quran, and Prophet Muhammad (S) named her Fizza (SA)

Hazrat Fizza (SA) was predestined to reflect the Light of Ahlul Bayt (AS)

Concerning the words and wisdom of Prophet Muhammad (S), Allah says:

"Nor does he speak of (his own) desire. It is naught save a revelation that is revealed" -Holy Quran 53:3-4

The word Fizza (Fidha فِضَّةٍ۬) is Quranic Arabic for silver. In Surah Al-Insaan Allah says:

"And amongst them will be passed round vessels of silver and goblets of crystal― Crystal-clear, made of silver: they will determine the measure thereof " -Holy Quran 76:15-16

"Upon them will be Green Garments of fine silk and heavy brocade, and they will be adorned with Bracelets of silver; and their Lord will give to them to drink of a Wine Pure and Holy" -Holy Quran 76:21

The attribute of Fizza (SA) is the attribute of silver which is the best known reflector of visible light. Metaphysically it means that Fizza is the best known reflector of spiritual light, raised by Fatimah Zahra (SA), who is known throught the Islamic and Christian worlds as the Lady of Light.

The name Fizza translates into silver. Silver metal is brilliant, eye catching, and attractive. It has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity of all metals. Silver remains stable in pure air and water.

The House of the Messenger of Allah (S) was a pure environment. Allah says in the Holy Quran that he purifies the members of this household with a thorough purification. Concerning Ahlul Bayt (AS) Allah says:

"...Allah's wish is but to remove uncleanness far from you, Ahlul Bayt, and purify you with a thorough purification." -Holy Quran 33:33

It was this environment which kept Fizza (SA) in her natural state, pure and untarnished. Fizza (SA) was cultivated in the environment of Ahlul Bayt (AS).  She is known as Malka-e-Habesha, which means Abysinian, Eithiopian, or more literally "Black Queen".

Fizza (SA) mastered the Quran to such a degree, that she could give any answer to any question, by reciting a verse from the Quran. She could easily hold a conversation by reciting the Quran. And she is reported to have spoken a language which consisted of Quran and nothing but Quran. Some reports say that she spoke nothing but Quran for a full twenty years!

Princess Fizza (SA) was not an avarage princess. She was raised in the house of the descendants of Abraham (AS), about whom Allah says:

"Verily Allah did choose Adam and Noah the family of Abraham, and the family of Imran above all the worlds." -Holy Quran 3:33

Princess Fizza (SA) was raised with Chiefs of the Youths in Paradise, Hassan and Hussein (AS), the beloved grandsons of Prophet Muhammad (S). She was raised in the home of the Manifesting Imam, Ali Ibn Abi Talib (AS), about whom Allah says:

"Verily We shall give life to the dead, and We record that which they sent before and that which they leave behind, and of all things have We taken account in a Manifesting Imam." -Holy Quran 36:12

Fatimah Zahra (SA), daughter of the Holy Prophet (S), on her deathbed said to Imam Ali (AS): "I loved her (Fizza) like my daughter".- Nahjul Balagha

The respected companion Salman Farsi once came to the door of Ahlul Bayt (AS), searching for Imam Ali (AS). When Hazrat Fizza (SA) opened the door she was asked the whereabouts of Imam Ali (AS), and replied by saying: "He is probably on the stars distributing the gifts of provision." Without realising the wisdom of her statement, Salman Farsi (RA) became agitated and took offence to her reply. So he went in search of Imam Ali (AS).

Salman Farsi (RA) eventually found Imam Ali (AS) working in the garden of a non-Muslim. He complained to Imam Ali (AS) about Hazrat Fizza (SA), mentioning what Fizza (SA) said about Imam Ali (AS) being on the stars distributing the gifts of provision. Imam Ali (AS) smiled and said: "Salman, do you have any doubts?"

Etymology: Habesha is from Abesha

Abesha, a variant of Habesha is a word used to refer to both Eritreans and Ethiopians, or, more specifically, to the Semitic-speaking inhabitants of those countries. The first inscription to refer to "Habesha" is a Sabaean South Arabian inscription ca. 200 AD referring to king GDRT of Aksum (an ancient Kingdom located in modern Ethiopia and Eritrea) as king of the city of Aksum and the "clans of Habesha."

As Sabaic and Ge'ez (the ancient language and alphabet of Ethiopia, still used) it was unvocalized, it is written as "h.bs't" (put the dot under the h and the apostrophe on top of the s) and later as vocalized as h.abs'aat (put the dot under the h, apostrophe over the s, and make the two a's a long "a" - meaning an a with a line over it), which evolved into today's Habesha.

The term was translated by the famous Christian King Ezana of Aksum in the mid 4th century as "Ethiopia" in Greek, which previously referred to Africa south of Egypt in general, or Nubia (in modern-day Sudan) in particular. The term is not, as commonly assumed, of Arabic origin, but of local Semitic origin. Spurious Arabic etymologies tend to connect the term with the meaning "mixed," on the false assumption that the peoples of the Horn of Africa are the product of African-Arab mixes.

The term was also used by the Turks as "Habesh" or "Habeshistan" to refer to their small territory taken from Ethiopia in 1557, comprising of the port cities of Massawa and Hergigo (Habeshistan also included Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, the capital of the province, Suwakin in Sudan, and Aden in Yemen).
Abesha neh? Translation: Are you Abesha (male)/from Ethiopia or Eritrea?

Abesha nesh? (for a female, as above)
"Abesha timeslaleh, abesha neh (You look abesha, are you abesha ? masculine) or
Abesha timesyalesh, abesha nesh (You look abesha, are you abesha ? - feminine).

Hazrat Fizza (SA): According to Surah Al-Insaan (76)- Tafsir

Hazrat Fizza (SA) had the honour of taking part in the "Three Days Fast". Once, when Imam Hasan (AS) and Imam Husain (AS) fell sick, the Holy Prophet (S) suggested that Imam Ali (AS) make a vow (Nazr) to fast for three days when the children recovered.

When the children were better, Imam Ali (AS), Hazrat Fatimah (SA), Imam Hasan (AS), Imam Husain (AS) and Hazrat Fizza (SA) all fasted to fulfil the vow.

However, on each of the three days, when they sat to break their fast, a hungry person called at their door. The first said he was poor, the second said he was an orphan and the third said he was a freed captive. Each time, the big-hearted members of the house, including Bibi Fizza, gave away their food and broke their fast with water.

In praise of this selfless action Allah revealed the 76th Chapter of the Holy Qur'an. The incident is described as follows:

يُوفُونَ بِٱلنَّذۡرِ وَيَخَافُونَ يَوۡمً۬ا كَانَ شَرُّهُ ۥ مُسۡتَطِيرً۬ا (٧) وَيُطۡعِمُونَ ٱلطَّعَامَ عَلَىٰ حُبِّهِۦ مِسۡكِينً۬ا وَيَتِيمً۬ا وَأَسِيرًا (٨) إِنَّمَا نُطۡعِمُكُمۡ لِوَجۡهِ ٱللَّهِ لَا نُرِيدُ مِنكُمۡ جَزَآءً۬ وَلَا شُكُورًا (٩) إِنَّا نَخَافُ مِن رَّبِّنَا يَوۡمًا عَبُوسً۬ا قَمۡطَرِيرً۬ا (١٠) فَوَقَٮٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ شَرَّ ذَٲلِكَ ٱلۡيَوۡمِ وَلَقَّٮٰهُمۡ نَضۡرَةً۬ وَسُرُورً۬ا (١١

"They who fulfil their vows, and fear the day, the woe of which stretches far and wide. And they give away food, out of love for Him, to the poor and the orphan and the captive, (saying), We feed you only for the sake of Allah, we do not want anything from you, not even thanks. Verily we fear from our Lord a stern day of distress. So Allah will guard them from the evil of that day and give them freshness and pleasure". (Surah Dahr - Insaan 76:7-11)

Sunday, June 19, 2011

Mahir (RA)

Mahir (RA) (1)

Mahir was also a Copt. and had been sent to the Holy Prophet by the King of Egypt.(2) He later became a Muslim but further details of his life are not available.

1. Sima'i Tabnak-i Bilal

2. Isabah, vol. I

Mabur Al-Hahi (RA)

Mabur Al-Hahi (RA)(1)

Mahir was a Copt. He had been sent to the Holy Prophet by the together with Mariya Qibitiyya by the King of Egypt. He became a Muslim during the lifetime of the Prophet. According to some reports he was one of the cousins of Mariya Qibtiyya. (2)

1. Sima'i Tabnak-i Bilal

2. Usudul Ghabah, Vol. IV.

Saturday, June 18, 2011

Yasir (RA)- Man of Prayers

Yasir- A Man of Prayers (1)

This Yasir was one of the servants of the Holy Prophet. He looked after the Prophet's ten milk-camels.

His abstinence from worldly pleasures, his piety and his deep attachment to prayers so impressed the Holy Prophet that he liberated him. He moved to a place called Hirah, where despite being free, he continued to look after the Prophet's camels which were kept there.

Some men from the tribe of Umayyah came to the Prophet and accepted Islam. They were all suffering from the effects of malnutrition and their bellies were swollen. The Prophet sent them to Yasir. They then drank the milk from the camels and after some their stomachs returned to the usual size.

What a pity! When these people, having once recovered their health, thrust thin bars into Yasir's eyes and killed him. After his murder, Yasir's body was brought before the Holy Prophet at a place called quba, where he was eventually buried. (2)

1. Sima'i Tabnak-i Bilal

2. Usudul Ghabah, Vol. V.

Yasir- The Martyr of Khaibar

Yasir- The Martyr of Khaibar (1)

Yasir was a slave of a Jew named Kamir and lived at Khaibar. He used to look after the sheep of his master. During the time the Muslim army laid siege on some on some of the forts of Khaibar, Yasir approached the Prophet and asked him to explain to him about Islam. The Holy Prophet enlightened him on Islam and he became a Muslim.

Yasir, on becoming a Muslim, joined the Muslim army but he was worried about his responsibility to look after his master's sheep. He therefore asked the Prophet, 'What shall I do with these sheep whose master has entrusted them to me and are under my care!?' The Holy Prophet replied, 'Turn their faces towards the house of their master and before long they will have got to him'.

So Yasir took a handful of earth and hurled it at the faces of the sheep saying, 'Turn you all back to your master. By Allah, I shall not be back with you.' At this all the sheep, without any herdsman, moved back into the fort where their master lived. It seemed as if some invisible shepherd was guiding them.

Yasir then joined the Muslim army and died a martyr's death whilst fighting. He was hit by a large stone flung from one of the forts to which the Muslims had laid seige. The Holy Prophet rushed to his sacred dead body and personally shrouded him and performed his burial ceremony. At his funeral the Prophet said, 'With him now are the celestial-brides as his wives.'

Thus Islam bestowed upon him a three-fold honour; he became a man of supernatural powers, he achieved martyrdom and recieved celestial-brides to look after him in heaven. (2)

1. Sima'i Tabnak-i Bilal, Husayn Malika Ashtiyani

2. Usudul Ghabah, Vol. V, by Ibn-e-Athir al Jazaeri; Isti'ab; Isabah