Saturday, January 24, 2009
By: Laila Hasib
Ask any schoolboy or girl in North America and the Chances are they will say that Columbus discovered America. They will even give the date: October 11, 1492. Not only did Christopher Columbus not discover any place or see the American shore, but also European historians, who dominate the world scene, have conveniently hidden the truth about the first contacts between the new and old worlds. To tell the world that that Muslims from Africa were the first to cross the Atlantic Ocean, disembark on solid soil and live in the Caribbean Islands and in South America would disrupt the imperialists false sense of Glory and Superiority.
Much has become known about the explorer Columbus through the strenuous efforts of native people eager to tell their story. Five hundred years after he washed up on the shores of San Salvador, it has become clear that Columbus stumbled upon not only Indians, but Muslims as well. Muslims began traveling to the Caribbean six centuries before European contact was made (over 1,100 years ago). Columbus and early Spanish and Portuguese explorers were able to voyage across the Atlantic (a distance of 1,500 miles) due to Muslim geographical and navigational information and maps made by Muslim traders, in particular Al-Masudis drawings (d. 957 CE). Vasco da Gama consulted with Ahmad Ibn Majid on the African Western coast before setting out into the Atlantic. Ibn Majid was the worlds expert on navigation in the Indian Ocean, the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, the Sea of Southern China and the waters around the West Indies.As early as 889 CE, a Muslim navigator, Kashkhash ibn Saeed ibn Aswad, from Cordoba Spain, crossed the Atlantic and returned with wonderful treasures. In February 999 CE, Ibn Farukh landed in Gando (Great Canary Islands), visited King Guanariga, and continued westwards where he saw and named two islands, Capraria and Pluitana, he arrived back in Spain in May.
The famous Arab Geographer Al Sharif al-Idrisi (1097-1155) wrote in The Geography of Al-Idrisi: A group of seafarers (from North Africa) sailed into the sea of Darkness and Fog (The Atlantic Ocean) from Lisbon (Portugal) in order to discover what was in it, and to what extent were its limits�. They finally reached an island that had people and cultivation. On the fourth day a translator came speaking the Arabic language!
When Mansa Musa the world-renowned Mandinka monarch of the West African Islamic Empire of Mali, was enroute to Makkah on his famous Hajj in 1324, he informed the scholars of Cairo that his brother, King Abubakari II, had undertaken two expeditions into the Atlantic Ocean. When the king did not return to Timbuktoo from the second voyage of 1311, Mansa Musa became ruler of the Empire.The Mandinkas used the closest land base to West Africa, Brazil, as the center for their exploration of the Americas. They traveled along rivers through the dense jungles of South America into North America.
In a document written in 1754 a Spanish banderista (land pirate) wrote of well laid-out cities in and around Minas Geraes in the interior of Brazil with suburb stone and mortar buildings, obelisks and statues. The jungle has reclaimed many of these Mandinka cities, but the early Spanish explorers saw a large number of them. The Muslims left a legacy of writing among the natives of the area, especially on the Koaty Islands of Lake Titicaca, where the ideograms are identical to the Mandinka script.Even as far as the Pacific Ocean coast of South America, near Ylo, Mandinka Muslim writings have been found and translated: man - To pursue worship, to mature and become matter without life. Man pursues a cavernous place -(i.e. the grave).Anthropologists have proven that the Mandinkas under Mansa Musa's instructions explored many parts of North America via the Mississippi and other river systems.
At Four Corners, Arizona writings show that they even brought elephants from Africa to the area.In Panama, Central America, the Muslims had such an effect that even today the indigenous people are classified as either Mandingas (Mandinkas) of Tul.When Vasco Nunez de Balboa, the Spaniard, reached Panama in 1513, he came upon Africans. His recorder wrote that when Balboa entered the province of Quarequa, along the Isthmus of Darien, he found no gold, but some black prisoners of war belonging to the king. He asked him where he had obtained them and was told that blacks lived quite near and were constantly at war with them. These blacks were entirely like the blacks of Guinea. Ferdinand Columbus, the son of Christopher, wrote about the Blacks seen by his father in Honduras: The people who live farther east (of Pointe Cavinas) as far as Cape Graciosa Dios, are almost black in color.
Some Muslims in Honduras called themselves Al Mamy's (Al-Imamu or Imam). Other groups of blacks were reported in Honduras, perhaps by Columbus, near the Nicaraguan border at Tegucigalpa and known as Jaras and Guabas - these ancient clan and territorial designations titles are still used in Africa today.A Caribe scholar explained in The Daily Clarion of Belize (November 5, 1946): When Christopher Columbus discovered the West Indies about the year 1493, he found there a race. with woolly hair whom he called Caribs.They were seafaring hunters and tillers of the soil, peaceful and united. They hated aggression. Their religion was Mohammedanism and their language was Arabic.
Islamic practices such as the prohibition of swine eating are well known among the Caribs. Their most prized possession was the Caracole, a crescent shaped alloy framed in wood.A renowned American historian and linguist Leo Weiner of Harvard University, in his book, Africa and The Discovery of America (1920) wrote that Columbus was well aware of the Mandinka presence in the New World, and that the West African Muslims had spread throughout the Caribbean, Central and South America, North America and even into Canada, where they were trading and intermarrying with the Iroquois and Algonquin Indians.
No wonder Weiner's book is controversial. Columbus wrote of his third voyage: Inhabitants of the Island of Santiago said that to the Southwest of the Island of Huego (one of the Cape Verde's) was another island of people (Haiti), where he found Black People who have the tops of their spears made of a metal which they call Guanin (Mandinka for gold 32 parts, 18 were of gold, six parts of silver and eight of copper.
Muslims in West Africa had known the art of alloying gold with copper and silver for centuries.Columbus left on his first voyage under the patronage of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain at a time when the Muslim population was under tremendous pressure to convert to Catholicism or face extermination. Muslims had ruled Spain for over 700 years dominating Europe culturally, educationally and economically. But Spain fell to the Christians that year. The colonization of the Americas by the Spanish was simply an extension of the reqonquista (reconquest) of the Iberian Peninsula. The explorers were Spanish soldiers who had fought in Africa and sailed the seas to destroy Islam, therefore they easily recognized the Muslims in the New World.
The influence of Islam on Spain was so profound that when Hernando Cortez arrived in Yucatan, Mexico in 1519, he named the area El-Cairo and the men of Cortez and Pizarro called the nati ve temples Mezquitas (Spanish for masjid). Some Moriscos (Muslims who had become Christians by force) also traveled to the Americas as soldiers, explorers and laborers. There they returned to their true faith and succeeded in propagating Islam to the native people. As soon as this was discovered, a series of laws was decreed by Spain to stop the flow of free and enslaved Muslims to the Americas.
The king wrote on July16 1550: I order you that under no circumstances, or by any means shall you consent to the passage to our Indies, Islands or Tierra Firma of any Negro Slaves who may be from the Levant or who may have been brought up there, or no other Negroes who may have been reared with Moriscos, even though they be of the race of Negroes of Guinea. Not only were they afraid that the Muslims would upset their heinous plans of enslaving the native people, but their presence was also seen as a threatening their efforts at converting the population to their passive brand of Christianity.
In another edict he wrote: You are informed that if such Moors are by their nationality and origin Moors, and if they should teach Muslim doctrines or wage war against you, or the Indians who may have adopted the Muslim religion, you shall; not make them slaves by any means whatsoever. On the contrary you shall try to convert them or persuade them by good and legitimate means to accept our Holy Catholic Faith.The hypocrisy of the church and the state was clearly highlighted by the first Christians to see land in the New World. When he returned to Spain Rodrigo de Triana embraced Islam and said: Columbus did not give him credit, nor the king and recompense (reward) for his having seen before any other man, Light in The Indies.
This article was originally printed in Mahjuba Magazine, no. 109, June 1993 -Tehran, Iran
Saturday, January 17, 2009
Bibi means Lady of the house. Janab is a title of honor and respect. I have chosen to use the word Hazrat which is the Arabic equivalent of Janab. She is also given the title of Amma due to her dedication and loyalty to the household of Prophet Muhammad (SAAS). Hazrat Fizza (AS) was Malka-e-Habash which means that she was an Ethiopian Queen. She had been enslaved. She was then purchased and freed by Prophet Muhammad (SAAS).
Hazrat Fizza (AS) was a strong Black Muslim sister of supreme intelligence and wisdom. Her qualities are seen in the various circumstances that she endured. Hazrat Fizza (AS) was a close companion to Hazrat Fatima (AS), daughter of Allah's Messenger (SAAS). She lived in the House of Hazrat Fatima (AS) and shared in the tasks of her home. Hazrat Fatima (AS) and Hazrat Fizza (AS) would care for the home on alternate days.
Hazrat Fizza (AS) was also a Hafiz (caretaker) and reciter of the Holy Quran. She had memorized the Quran in such a way that she would answer every question with a verse. This is the true meaning of a Hafiz which implies so much more than just committing the entire Quran to memory. It is reported that Hazrat Fizza (AS) exercised such mastery over the Quran that for twenty years she would talk by quoting its verses.
A Muslim writer named Abul Qasim Al-Qashiri narrates a story from Abdullah Bin Mubarak and his encounter with Hazrat Fizza (AS). Abdullah Bin Mubarak noticed Hazrat Fizza (AS) at some distance behind a caravan in the desert. He wanted to help her by taking her to the caravan. So he approached her.
Abdullah asked: Who are you?
Hazrat Fizza (AS) replied: وَإِذَا جَآءَكَ ٱلَّذِينَ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَا فَقُلۡ سَلَـٰمٌ عَلَيۡكُمۡۖ
And when those who believe in Our revelations come unto thee, say: Peace be unto you! (6:54)
This was to correct the approach of Abdullah Bin Mubarak, reminding him of the proper Adaab (ethics) to be used before opening a conversation.
He then offered his salutations and asked: What are you doing here?
She replied: وَمَن يَهۡدِ ٱللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ ۥ مِن مُّضِلٍّۗ
And who Allah guides none can mislead (39:37)
Abdullah understood from this verse that Hazrat Fizza (AS) had not lost her way in the desert.
He then inquired: Are you a human being or a jinn?
Note: A jinn is a creation of Allah that once inhabited the earth before man. Their has since been a barrier placed between jinn and mankind. The jinn occupy the realm of ether. They are also known as demons.
Hazrat Fizza (AS) answered: يَـٰبَنِىٓ ءَادَمَ خُذُواْ زِينَتَكُمۡ عِندَ كُلِّ مَسۡجِدٍ۬
O children of Adam! Adorn yourself at every place of worship (7:31)
Thus confirming that she was indeed human.
He asked: Where are you coming from?
She said: أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ يُنَادَوۡنَ مِن مَّكَانِۭ بَعِيدٍ۬
They are being called from a place far distant! (41:44)
He continued to inquire: Where do you want to go?
She informed him: وَلِلَّهِ عَلَى ٱلنَّاسِ حِجُّ ٱلۡبَيۡتِ
And pilgrimage to the House is a duty unto Allah for mankind (3:97)
Hazrat Fizza (AS) was informing Abdullah that she was performing Hajj.
He asked: When did you leave for Mecca?
She replied: وَلَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَمَا بَيۡنَهُمَا فِى سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ۬
And verily We created the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them in six days (50:38)
He asked: Are you hungry?
She replied in the affirmative: وَمَا جَعَلۡنَـٰهُمۡ جَسَدً۬ا لَّا يَأۡڪُلُونَ ٱلطَّعَامَ وَمَا كَانُواْ خَـٰلِدِينَ
And we did not make for them a body that they can live without eating (21:8)
Abdullah Bin Mubarak waited at a distance on his horse while Hazrat Fizza (AS) ate the food that he offered to her.
When she finished her meal, he called out to her: Come running, hurry up!
She told him: لَا يُكَلِّفُ ٱللَّهُ نَفۡسًا إِلَّا وُسۡعَهَا
Allah burdens not a soul beyond its scope (2:286)
Abdullah was patient until she was able to arrive. Then he invited her to ride with him.
He said: Sit behind me on the horse.
Once again Hazrat Fizza (AS) had to remind Abdullah of the proper Islamic Adaab.
She refused and recited: لَوۡ كَانَ فِيہِمَآ ءَالِهَةٌ إِلَّا ٱللَّهُ لَفَسَدَتَا
If there were therein gods besides Allah there would have been disorder (21:22)
Notice how Hazrat Fizza (AS) glorifies the Oneness of Allah (SWT), while reminding Abdullah Bin Mubarak to guard his faith (Taqwa)! Indeed Hazrat Fizza has taken this conversation to a higher level, without straying from the specific address of Abdullah.
He took heed to the verse and dismounted his horse. After Hazrat Fizza (AS) was seated comfortably on the horse, she recited words of praise: سُبۡحَـٰنَ ٱلَّذِى سَخَّرَ لَنَا هَـٰذَا
Glory to Allah Who has subdued these (animals) unto us (43:13)
When they caught up to the caravan that Hazrat Fizza (AS) was traveling with, Abdullah asked:
Do you have anyone in this caravan?
She informed him:
يَـٰدَاوُ ۥدُ إِنَّا جَعَلۡنَـٰكَ خَلِيفَةً۬ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ
O David, we have made you a Khalifah in the earth (38:26)
وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ۬
Muhammad was but a Messenger (3:144)
يَـٰيَحۡيَىٰ خُذِ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبَ بِقُوَّةٍ۬
O John, hold fast to the Scripture (19:12)
يَـٰمُوسَىٰٓ إِنِّىٓ أَنَا ٱللَّهُ رَبُّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ
O Moses, I am Allah, Lord of the worlds (28:30)
By reciting these verses, Hazrat Fizza (AS) named four people in the caravan. When David, Muhammad, John, and Moses saw Hazrat Fizza (AS), they ran towards her.
Abdullah asked: Who are they?
Hazrat Fizza (AS) answered: ٱلۡمَالُ وَٱلۡبَنُونَ زِينَةُ ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا
Wealth and children are the ornaments of (this) life (18:46)
Indeed, these were the sons of Hazrat Fizza (AS). Seeing that Abdullah Bin Mubarak had assisted their mother with kindness towards her, they treated him with due respect. Hazrat Fizza (AS) ordered her children:
ٱسۡتَـٔۡجِرۡهُۖ إِنَّ خَيۡرَ مَنِ ٱسۡتَـٔۡجَرۡتَ ٱلۡقَوِىُّ ٱلۡأَمِينُ
Hire him. the best person you should hire is one who is strong and trustworthy. (28:26)
In response to their mother's command, the sons of Hazrat Fizza (AS) bestowed gifts on Abdullah Bin Mubarak. But the generosity of Hazrat Fizza (AS) demanded that her sons should bestow upon him more lavishly. So she reminded her children of Allah's Grace by asking:
مَّن ذَا ٱلَّذِى يُقۡرِضُ ٱللَّهَ قَرۡضًا حَسَنً۬ا فَيُضَـٰعِفَهُ ۥ لَهُ ۥۤ أَضۡعَافً۬ا ڪَثِيرَةً۬
Who is he that will loan to Allah a beautiful loan, which Allah will double unto his credit and multiply many times? (2:245)
Her sons responded by giving money to Abdullah Bin Mubarak, in addition to the gifts he had recieved. Abdul Qasim wanted to know the identity of this magnifecent lady who rehersed the ayah of Allah (SWT) so well. Her sons informed him that she was Hazrat Fizza (AS), a slave who was set free by Prophet Muhammad (SAAS), the close companion of Hazrat Fatimah (AS), and caretaker of Ahlul Bayt (AS).
To learn more about Hazrat Fizza (AS) click on these links: