Sunday, December 18, 2011

The Arabs in Al-Quran ٱلْأَعْرَابُ


The Arabs in Al-Quran: by Asad AbdurRahman


يعرب‎ Ya'rub: Ya‘rub ibn Yashjub ibn Qahtan- Father of the Arabs

إعراب I'raab: 1. Grammer (modern standard Arabic). 2. Inf. n. clear, plain, distinct; as in "Pure Arabian blood, free from any admixture of other than Arabian blood" -Reference Arabic-English Lexicon page 1992 by Edward William Lane 1863الْأَعْرَابُ Al-A'raab (plural): The Arabs. The prefix الْ means "The".

Note: Conjugation with an Arabic vowel does not change the root of an Arabic word. The alif أ between ra ر and ba ب in Al-A'raab does not change the Arabs into Bedouins. Al-A'raab and Bedoiun are two distinct Arabic words with two distinct Arabic roots.

Allah says:

وَجَآءَ ٱلْمُعَذِّرُونَ مِنَ ٱلْأَعْرَابِ لِيُؤْذَنَ لَهُمْ وَقَعَدَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَذَبُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ ۚ سَيُصِيبُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ مِنْهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌۭ

And came the excuse makers from the Arabs (الْأَعْرَابِ) that permission be granted to them, and sat those who lied to Allah and His Messenger. Will strike those who disbelieved from them, a painful punishment- Holy Quran 9:90

Allah says:

ٱلْأَعْرَابُ أَشَدُّ كُفْرًۭا وَنِفَاقًۭا وَأَجْدَرُ أَلَّا يَعْلَمُوا۟ حُدُودَ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِۦ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌۭ

The Arabs (الْأَعْرَابُ) are stronger in infidelity and hypocricy, and more likely they know not the limits of what Allah sent down to His Messenger. And Allah is Knowing, Wise- Holy Quran 9:97

وَمِنَ ٱلْأَعْرَابِ مَن يَتَّخِذُ مَا يُنفِقُ مَغْرَمًۭا وَيَتَرَبَّصُ بِكُمُ ٱلدَّوَآئِرَ ۚ عَلَيْهِمْ دَآئِرَةُ ٱلسَّوْءِ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌۭ

And from the Arabs (الْأَعْرَابِ) (is he) who takes what he spends (as) a loss, and he awaits for you the turns. Upon them the evil turn. And Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing- Holy Quran 9:98

وَمِنَ ٱلْأَعْرَابِ مَن يُؤْمِنُ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلْيَوْمِ ٱلْءَاخِرِ وَيَتَّخِذُ مَا يُنفِقُ قُرُبَٰتٍ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ وَصَلَوَٰتِ ٱلرَّسُولِ ۚ أَلَآ إِنَّهَا قُرْبَةٌۭ لَّهُمْ ۚ سَيُدْخِلُهُمُ ٱللَّهُ فِى رَحْمَتِهِۦٓ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٌۭ رَّحِيمٌۭ

And from the Arabs (الْأَعْرَابِ) (is he) who has faith in Allah and the Last Day, and takes what he spends as means of nearness to Allah and prayers (وَصَلَوَاتِ) of the Messenger. Behold! Verily it is a means of nearness for them. Allah will admit them in His Mercy. Verily Allah is Forgiving, Merciful- Holy Quran 9:99

Allah says:

وَمِمَّنْ حَوْلَكُم مِّنَ ٱلْأَعْرَابِ مُنَٰفِقُونَ ۖ وَمِنْ أَهْلِ ٱلْمَدِينَةِ ۖ مَرَدُوا۟ عَلَى ٱلنِّفَاقِ لَا تَعْلَمُهُمْ ۖ نَحْنُ نَعْلَمُهُمْ ۚ سَنُعَذِّبُهُم مَّرَّتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ عَذَابٍ عَظِيمٍۢ

And among those around you from the Arabs (ٱلْأَعْرَابِ)(are) hypocrits. And from people of Medina. They persist upon The Hypocricy. You know them not. We know them. We will punish them twice. Then they will be returned to a Great Punishment. -Holy Quran 9:101
Allah says:

مَا كَانَ لِأَهْلِ ٱلْمَدِينَةِ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهُم مِّنَ ٱلْأَعْرَابِ أَن يَتَخَلَّفُوا۟ عَن رَّسُولِ ٱللَّهِ وَلَا يَرْغَبُوا۟ بِأَنفُسِهِمْ عَن نَّفْسِهِۦ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ لَا يُصِيبُهُمْ ظَمَأٌۭ وَلَا نَصَبٌۭ وَلَا مَخْمَصَةٌۭ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَلَا يَطَـُٔونَ مَوْطِئًۭا يَغِيظُ ٱلْكُفَّارَ وَلَا يَنَالُونَ مِنْ عَدُوٍّۢ نَّيْلًا إِلَّا كُتِبَ لَهُم بِهِۦ عَمَلٌۭ صَٰلِحٌ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُضِيعُ أَجْرَ ٱلْمُحْسِنِينَ

It is not for the people of Medina and who (are) around them from the Arabs (ٱلْأَعْرَابِ)
that they remain with the Messenger of Allah and not prefer their selves to his self;..."- Holy Quran 9:120

Allah says:

يَحْسَبُونَ ٱلْأَحْزَابَ لَمْ يَذْهَبُوا۟ ۖ وَإِن يَأْتِ ٱلْأَحْزَابُ يَوَدُّوا۟ لَوْ أَنَّهُم بَادُونَ فِى ٱلْأَعْرَابِ يَسْـَٔلُونَ عَنْ أَنۢبَآئِكُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ كَانُوا۟ فِيكُم مَّا قَٰتَلُوٓا۟ إِلَّا قَلِيلًۭا

They think the Party are not withdrawn. And if come the Party, they'd wish if that they (were in) the desert with the Arabs (ٱلْأَعْرَابِ) asking for your information. And if they were with you, they would not fight except a little.- Holy Quran 33:20

Allah says:

سَيَقُولُ لَكَ ٱلْمُخَلَّفُونَ مِنَ ٱلْأَعْرَابِ شَغَلَتْنَآ أَمْوَٰلُنَا وَأَهْلُونَا فَٱسْتَغْفِرْ لَنَا ۚ يَقُولُونَ بِأَلْسِنَتِهِم مَّا لَيْسَ فِى قُلُوبِهِمْ ۚ قُلْ فَمَن يَمْلِكُ لَكُم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيْـًٔا إِنْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ ضَرًّا أَوْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ نَفْعًۢا ۚ بَلْ كَانَ ٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًۢا

Those who remained behind from the Arabs (الْأَعْرَابِ) will say to you: "Our properties kept us busy, and our people, so ask forgiveness for us." They say with their tongues what is not in their hearts. Say: "Then who has power for you from Allah in anything if He intends in you harm, or He intends in you benefit? No! Allah is (كَانَ), of what you do, Aware."- Holy Quran 48:11

Allah says:

قُل لِّلْمُخَلَّفِينَ مِنَ ٱلْأَعْرَابِ سَتُدْعَوْنَ إِلَىٰ قَوْمٍ أُو۟لِى بَأْسٍۢ شَدِيدٍۢ تُقَٰتِلُونَهُمْ أَوْ يُسْلِمُونَ ۖ فَإِن تُطِيعُوا۟ يُؤْتِكُمُ ٱللَّهُ أَجْرًا حَسَنًۭا ۖ وَإِن تَتَوَلَّوْا۟ كَمَا تَوَلَّيْتُم مِّن قَبْلُ يُعَذِّبْكُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًۭا

Say to the people who remain from the Arabs (الْأَعْرَابِ): "You will be called to a punishing people, severe; You fight them, or they submit. Then if you obey, Allah will give you a good reward. And if you turn as you turned from before, He will punish you a punishment painful.- Holy Quran 48:16

Allah says:

قَالَتِ ٱلْأَعْرَابُ ءَامَنَّا ۖ قُل لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُوا۟ وَلَٰكِن قُولُوٓا۟ أَسْلَمْنَا وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ ٱلْإِيمَٰنُ فِى قُلُوبِكُمْ ۖ وَإِن تُطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ لَا يَلِتْكُم مِّنْ أَعْمَٰلِكُمْ شَيْـًٔا ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٌۭ رَّحِيمٌ

The Arabs (ٱلْأَعْرَابُ) say "We Believe". Say: "You believe not, [and] but say 'We submitted', and not enters the faith in your hearts. And if you obey Allah and His Messenger, He will lessen not your deeds anything. Verily Allah is Forgiving, Merciful"- Holy Quran- 49:14

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